In order to achieve this outcome we work on two priorities:

Development of upgraded area planning schemes (projekt orhanizatsiyi terrytoriyi) for protected areas in Ukraine

Through the SNPA Project MENR upgrades the management plans of eight Protected Areas (PA) in accordance with international standards. MENR chose an integrated approach to cater for the justified interests of relevant stakeholders in conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Guidelines for this approach are e.g. described in Borrini-Feyerabend 2013, Dudley and Philipps 2006, IUCN 2014, Unesco 1996, Unesco 2016, Getzner et al. 2010, Lange and Jungmeier 2014, Wagner et al. 2005.

Ukrainian protected areas cover 6,2 % of the country’s territory. However, they are on the verge of losing their unique values. In general, the parks‘ management is weak due to

  • the absence of/low quality of equipment and infrastructure, as well as poor working conditions.
  • insufficient funding, which, in most cases, only covers the basic salaries.
  • insufficient know-how, especially regarding participatory approaches and cooperation with local stakeholders (local communities and local authorities).
  • poor conservation management of particular habitat types and ineffective environmental management.
  • a lack of attention to the cultural heritage both inside and outside of protected areas.
  • the almost complete absence of knowledge about the ecosystem services of protected areas.

The poor quality of management plans is a cross-cutting issue. None of the protected areas subject of these ToR have management plans complying with the new legal provisions in Ukraine issued in 2014. Those provisions include the adherence to European standards, especially the Habitat and Bird Directives, participatory management planning processes, improved cooperation with local communities, introduction of innovative technologies and upgraded conservation management standards.

The management planning process targets the following protected areas:

  • Synevyr, Karpatskyi, Uzhanskyi, Verkhovynskyi, Yavorivskyi, and Vyzhnytskyi National Nature Parks, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve and Gorgany Nature Reserve.

The current status of management planning in these parks is summarised in Table 1 below.

Table 1. Status of management planning for seven selected protected areas

Name and size of protected area

Status of management planning

Year of approval of management documents

Gorgany Nature Reserve (GNR), total area = 5.344 ha

Management plan established (23.04.2014, №194) but developed according to legal provisions of 2005. It was upgraded to comply with EU regulations in 2012 (WWF project), but this version was not implemented for legal reasons.


Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (CBR), total area = 58.036 ha

The last management plan was approved in April 2003 and expired in 2013. MENR updated this plan in 2016 with the support of an external service provider. The plan lacks compliance with EU regulations and is not yet approved by the CBR management.

Started in 2016, draft version completed in 2017.

Synevyr National Nature Park (SNNP), total area = 40.400 ha

The last management plan was approved in Mach 2003 and expired in 2013. MENR started to develop a new version in 2015 but this initiative was stopped due to the lack of funds. Only some parts of this plan (forest management) were upgraded based on the legal provisions of 2005.

2003, partly upgraded in 2015

Uzhanskyi National Nature Park (UNNP), total area = 39.159 ha

The management plan was updated in 2014 based on the legal provisions of 2005. WWF supported the inclusion of EU standards in 2012 but the results are not yet approved. The management plan needs to be revised.


Verhovyns’kyi National Nature Park (VNNP), total area = 12.022 ha

The management plan was approved on 12.04.2016 but it was developed based on the legal provisions of 2005. The plan needs to be revised.


Vyszhnyts’kyi National Nature Park (VNNP), total area = 11.238 ha

The management plan was approved in 2011 but it was developed based on the legal provisions of 2005. The plan needs to be revised.


Yavorivs’kyi National Nature Park (YNNP), total area = 7.079 ha

The management plan was approved in 2013 but it was developed based on the legal provisions of 2005. The plan needs to be revised.


Data collection
  • Park descrition
  • GIS mapping
  • Basic investigations and surveys
  • Analysis of management efficiency
Identification of priorities
  • International and national legal requirements
  • Analysis of values, potentials and threats
  • Analysis of main lines of action
  • Identification of priorities
  • Development of overall strategic plan
Park development strategy
  • 10-year strategy document
  • 5-year action plan
  • Analysis of short-, mid- and long-term resources
  • Plan coordination
  • Management plan according to EU quality standards


The following standards and reference documents have to be taken into account throughout the delivery of management planning services:

  • MENR Order from July 6, 2005 No. 245 “On the Approval of the Regulations on the Projects for Planning the Territories of the Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine” (as amended in accordance with the MENR Order No. 273 from August 21, 2014), Methods and Recommendations pertaining to the Order of the Ministry from 2005, already existing plans and experience in the PAs. The technical requirements for PA management developed below must be in accordance with the requirements of the MENR Order No. 273 from August 21, 2014, as this Order is currently legally binding in Ukraine.
  • Laws of Ukraine “On the Nature Reserve Fund”, “On the Red Book of Ukraine”, “On the Animal Kingdom”, “On the Plant Kingdom”; Forest, Water and Land Code of Ukraine.
  • Bern Convention, Ramsar, UNESCO (MAB, World Heritage), Emerald Network, Convention on Biodiversity. European standards, including Habitats and Birds Directives, European Beech Forest Network.

Besides national regulations, international guidelines have to be considered as well. The following documents have been ratified by the Ukrainian Parliament and are therefore mandatory:

  1. The Bern Convention is a binding legal instrument for the protection of flora and fauna as well as natural habitats in Europe. For Ukraine, this convention is now the most important international document on the conservation of animal and plant species as well as habitats. The convention is also the basis for the implementation of EU nature conservation directives and for the development of Emerald Network sites in Ukraine.
  2. The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the protection of wetlands, which implies certain reporting requirements that have to be met. The “Guideline for the efficient use of wetlands” can be used as a reference. The Ramsar Convention’s CEPA programme should also be considered as a communication tool in order to foster communication and education and raise awareness.
  3. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes two types of protected areas the standards of which should be met: World heritage sites and Biosphere reserves. More detailed descriptions are given in The Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB), the Seville Strategy (1995); the Madrid Action Plan (2008) and the Lima Action Plan (2016).
  4. Particular attention should be paid to certain areas in the Carpathians which are nominated to become part of the World Heritage site “Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe”.
  5. The Convention on Biodiversity (COB) shall be considered, including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (2014), if applicable.

There are also documents that are not legally valid but should be considered, considering the principles of strategic development of Ukraine, in particular:

  1. The Habitats Directive (Directive 1992/92/43/EEC) and the Birds Directive (Directive 2009/147/EC) should be considered in order to approach European and Ukrainian standards.
  2. IUCN standards and recommendations (e.g. “Strategic Planning for Species Conservation:  A Handbook) should also be considered.

Improving the land designation and boundary delineation of the protected areas

Clearly defined boundaries of protected areas are a pre-requisite for their legal functionality. To support this process, the SNPA project aims to support the development of a so-called “Protected Area Cadastre” for Ukraine. This cadastre will

  • support the ongoing development of the Ukrainian Protected Area network called “Natural Reserve Fund” (NRF).
  • improve the status of the PAs, ensure legal certainty and support effective PA management,
  • support planning research, which provides public authorities and stakeholders with necessary information for addressing various issues such as the socio-economic development.

The first step of this component will be the development of a so-called “Automated System of State Cadastre for Protected Areas” which will allow for the use of remote sensing methods to assist with the boundary delineation of protected areas.

The manual developed by a group of GIS experts as part of the project, which will be used for training in the parks, can be found here:

Map 1: Borders of Uzhanskyi NNP and NNP Skolivski Beskydy